Causative Form, Active and Passive
In English, the causative form is used when we don't do someting ourselves, instead we arrange for someone else to do it for us.
There are two kinds of causative structure:
- Active Causative
- Passive Causative
A. Active Causative
Verbs that take active forms of causative are Let, Make, Have, and Get
Let is used when we want to allow someone to do something.
She lets me borrow her book.
| ||let||agent||verb|| |
Make is used when we want to force someone to do something.
My mother makes me do my home work.
| ||make||agent||verb|| |
|My mother||makes||me||do||my homework.|
Have is used when we want to give someone the responsbility to do something.
My English teacher has me do the homework in a week.
| ||have/has||agent||verb|| |
|My English teacher||has||me||do||the home work in a week.|
Get is used when we want to convince to do something or to trick someone into doing something.
My friends get me to take the test.
| ||get||agent||to||verb|| |
|My friends||get||me||to||take||the quiz.|
Get vs. HaveSometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing.
My friends get me to take the test.It can be meant that I am actually not encouraged to take the test, but my friends convince me to take that.
My friends have me take the test.It means that my friends ask me to take the quiz.
B. Passive Causative
There are two verbs generally used in the passive causative form; they are Have and Get. In addition, there is usually no agent in this form; it's not like in active form which has the agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it. The difference between have and get in this passive causative form is the same like in active causative form explained aboved.
- I ask someone to fix my car.
= I have my car fixed.
- She asked John to wash the plate.
= She got the plate washed.
But, if the verb get followed by personal nouns, past participle can't be used in it. Instead, we must use to infinitive. So it will become just like in active causative form.
|Subject||Get||Object (personal noun)||to||verb|
- I get the house painted
- I get John to paint the house.
In addition, modal auxiliary verbs may be used with the causative sentence structure. Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, such as:
- You should have your hair cut.
- He should get his decision changed
- She will have the food cooked.
Need & Want
Need and want may be used in passive causative sentences. In some cases, the passive causative verb (had/got) may be dropped altogether.??
- I need/want to have my hair cut.
- I need/want my hair cut.
That was the explanation about causative form in English, active and passive form. And below is your chance to challenge your knowledge about the causative form. Take the quiz, good luck and enjoy!! :D