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Sunday, May 22, 2011

Causative Form (Active and Passive Causative)

Causative Form, Active and Passive

In English, the causative form is used when we don't do someting ourselves, instead we arrange for someone else to do it for us.

There are two kinds of causative structure:

  • Active Causative
  • Passive Causative

A. Active Causative

Verbs that take active forms of causative are Let, Make, Have, and Get

Let

Let is used when we want to allow someone to do something.

Pattern
let agent verb

Example:
She lets me borrow her book.
explanation:
  let agent verb  
She lets me borrow her book.

Make

Make is used when we want to force someone to do something.

Pattern
make agent verb

Example:
My mother makes me do my home work.
explanation:
  make agent verb  
My mother makes me do my homework.

Have

Have is used when we want to give someone the responsbility to do something.

Pattern
have agent verb

Example:
My English teacher has me do the homework in a week.
explanation:
  have/has agent verb  
My English teacher has me do the home work in a week.

Get

Get is used when we want to convince to do something or to trick someone into doing something.

Pattern
get agent to verb

Example:
My friends get me to take the test.
explanation:
  get agent to verb  
My friends get me to take the quiz.

Get vs. Have

Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing.
Examples:
My friends get me to take the test.
It can be meant that I am actually not encouraged to take the test, but my friends convince me to take that.
My friends have me take the test.
It means that my friends ask me to take the quiz.

B. Passive Causative

There are two verbs generally used in the passive causative form; they are Have and Get. In addition, there is usually no agent in this form; it's not like in active form which has the agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it. The difference between have and get in this passive causative form is the same like in active causative form explained aboved.

Pattern
Subject Have/Get Object Past Participle


Examples:
  • I ask someone to fix my car.
    = I have my car fixed.
  • She asked John to wash the plate.
    = She got the plate washed.
Exception

But, if the verb get followed by personal nouns, past participle can't be used in it. Instead, we must use to infinitive. So it will become just like in active causative form.

Pattern
Subject Get Object (personal noun) to verb

  • I get the house painted
  • I get John to paint the house.

In addition, modal auxiliary verbs may be used with the causative sentence structure. Most often, modals express a suggestion by the speaker, such as:

  • You should have your hair cut.
  • He should get his decision changed
  • She will have the food cooked.

Need & Want

Need and want may be used in passive causative sentences. In some cases, the passive causative verb (had/got) may be dropped altogether.??

  • I need/want to have my hair cut.
  • I need/want my hair cut.




That was the explanation about causative form in English, active and passive form. And below is your chance to challenge your knowledge about the causative form. Take the quiz, good luck and enjoy!! :D

8 Comments:

I have had this question running in mind since years and i got perfect answer that was really wonderful and awesome explanation. Thank you so much for such a wonderful Post. --Naresh

thank you for your information ^_^

How do you change this sentence into passive voice ( Would you mind making Fred bring me a glass of water?)

@Farid Ahmad Karimi would making fred bring me a glass of water will be minded by you.

I didn´t get the answers for the quiz,

@Farid Ahmad Karimi

I would like to have a glass of water brought by Fred

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